01/18/2017 | Bochum, Author: Karsten Hahn

Spora - the Shortcut Worm that is also a Ransomware

A sophisticated threat with interesting business model - more encrypted files = higher ransom

Spora spreads via USB drives like Gamarue and Dinihou aka Jenxcus whilst also encrypting files. The sophistication of this threat could easily make it the new Locky. We discuss its infection and encryption procedure and show how it uses statistical values about encrypted files to calculate the ransom amount.

HTA email Attachment as common infection vector

Spora's ransom note was first spotted by the ID Ransomware maintainers and announced via Twitter by MalwareHunterTeam. Several malware researchers and Twitter users were amazed by the good-looking, professional ransomware website and ransom note. Experience showed that most of these websites are in a bad shape. The first sample was provided by a member of Bleepingcomputer and discussed in their Spora support topic.

This sample is an HTA application with obfuscated VBScript code. According to Bleepingcomputer it arrived in a ZIP archive via email attachment. Submissions on VirusTotal show the filename Скан-копия _ 10 января 2017г. Составлено и подписано главным бухгалтером. Экспорт из 1С.a01e743_рdf.hta.

The HTA file writes a JScript file to %TEMP%\close.js and executes it. The JScript file in turn is a dropper for a Word document that is written to %TEMP%\doc_6d518e.docx and a PE file that is saved to %TEMP%\81063163ded.exe. Both files are opened by close.js, the Word document with a parameter to show and focus the window, and the PE file with a parameter to hide it. As a result the document will be opened by the set default application for .docx files, e.g., Word, but an error message is shown because it is corrupt. The PE file 81063163ded.exe has a seemingly random name, but it is actually hardcoded by the dropper. The PE file is UPX packed and contains the actual payload.

Worm-like behavior similar to Dinihou and Gamarue

While ZCryptor had already been deemed a combination of ransomware and worm due to its usage of autorun.inf, Spora goes some steps further using the same techniques as Gamarue and Dinihou. The functionality of autorun.inf had been removed in Windows 7 and was patched on Windows XP and Windows Vista more than seven years ago, thus making it an ineffective technique for worms to spread via removable drives. The trick is: Gamarue, Dinihou and now also Spora use Windows shortcuts (.LNK files) instead.

Spora adds the hidden attribute to files and folders on the desktop, in the root of removable drives and the system drive. These hidden files and folders are, with the standard folder options, not visible anymore. Spora then puts Windows shortcuts with the same name and icon as the hidden files and folders as a visible replacement. Those .LNK files open the original file to avoid raising any suspicion and simultaneously execute the malware. An example: the folder C:\Windows will be hidden and a file named C:\Windows.lnk will be created; it looks exactly like the original folder if the standard folder options on Windows are set.

The .LNK files use the following command to execute the worm and open the original file. If the original file is a folder it will open Windows Explorer to show its contents:

/c explorer.exe "<originalfile>" & type "<worm>" > "%%tmp%%\<worm>" & start "<originalfile>" "%%tmp%%\<worm>"

The worm copies itself as hidden file alongside the .LNK files, its filename is generated by calculating the CRC32 checksum for the VolumeSerialNumber. The result is put into the pattern %08x-%04x-%04x-%02x%02x-%02x%02x%02x%02 (see address 0x405492). This means, the name for the malware file can be, e.g., a277a133-ecde-c0f5-1591-ab36e22428bb.exe.

The worm deletes the registry value HKCR\lnkfile\isShortcut with the effect that the shortcut icons don't show the characteristic bent arrow in the lower left corner, which would be telltale sign to the user that something is wrong.

Simply navigating through the folders on your system and desktop using double-click will execute the worm. Using this strategy, it will not only spread to removable drives like USB thumb drives, it will also encrypt newly created files on the system. This renders the system unusable, for storing or working on any pictures or documents, until it is disinfected. 

Encryption

Spora actually does not rename encrypted files and targets a comparably small set of extensions. The encryption procedure is shown in the diagram below.

.backup, .7z, .rar, .zip, .tiff, .jpeg, .jpg, .accdb, .sqlite, .dbf, .1cd, .mdb, .cd, .cdr, .dwg, .psd, .pdf, .odt, .rtf, .docx, .xlsx, .doc, .xls

Spora generates a pair of RSA keys, C1 and C2 (1024 bit). This newly generated public RSA key C2 is used to encrypt the per-file AES keys which are also generated by Spora. The generated private RSA key C1 on the other hand is stored in the .KEY file. That file is encrypted using a newly generated AES Key B (256 bit). The attacker's public RSA key A2 is used to encrypt AES key B. The encrypted key B is appended to the .KEY file. The figure below shows the code that writes the .KEY file's content including the encrypted AES key B to disk.

A second important file is the .LST file which contains a list of all encrypted files. Its encryption works analogous to the .KEY file encryption. A new AES key is generated, used to encrypt the .LST contents, encrypted by the public RSA key A2 of the attacker and appended to the .LST file in encrypted form (see screenshot below):

Using this encryption scheme, Spora does not have to obtain a key from a command and control server and can work offline. The user has to upload the .KEY file to the payment site. 

The .KEY file is only decryptable by the ransomware authors. Using their private RSA key A1 they could decrypt the AES Key B that was appended to the .KEY file.  They could decrypt the remaining .KEY file contents including the user's private RSA key C1 using AES key B. Then they may put the private RSA key C1 into a decrypter that they send to the user after they have received the payment. This handling ensures that the attackers' private RSA key A1 is not exposed and that the decrypter only works for one user.However, this also means that there is only one private RSA key A1 for several infections. If that key is leaked or obtained by law enforcement, it can be used to decrypt all files that were encrypted by this variant of Spora and as such we can consider it a master key.

Statistics about encrypted files

Spora counts the number of encrypted files for six different extension categories. They are listed in the table below.

Position/IDCategoryFile Extensions
1Office Document.odt, .rtf, .docx, .xlsx, .doc, .xls
2PDF.pdf
3CorelDraw, AutoCAD, Photoshop.cdr, .dwg, .psd
4Database.accdb, .sqlite, .dbf, .1cd, .mdb, .cd
5Image.tiff, .jpeg, .jpg
6Archive.backup, .7z, .rar, .zip

The .KEY file saves these statistical values in the form date|user name|locale|cat1|cat2|cat3|cat4|cat5|cat6, e.g. 13.1.2017|horst|USA|10|2|3|0|103|51

The same statistics will be used for the naming scheme of the .LST file, the .KEY file and the ransom note. Let's take the following triplet of .KEY file, .LST file and ransom note as example.

  • RU302-15XRK-GXTFO-GZTET-KTXFF-ORTXA-AYYYY.LST
  • RU302-15XRK-GXTFO-GZTET-KTXFF-ORTXA-AYYYY.KEY
  • RU302-15XRK-GXTFO-GZTET-KTXFF-ORTXA-AYYYY.HTML

The first two letters of the filename are the locale which is RU in our example. The following five letters are the first characters of the MD5 hash for the contents of the .KEY file, in our example '30215'. The counters start right after the MD5 substring at the 8th letter. They have to be decoded using the substitution table below:

 123456789IPadding
ZXROAHFGEKTY

That means the file name RU302-15XRK-GXTFO-GZTET-KTXFF-ORTXA-AYYYY translates to Russia as location, the characters '30215' for the beginning of the MD5 hash, 12971 encrypted office documents, 6370 encrypted PDF, 8 encrypted CorelDraw/AutoCAD/Photoshop files, 9 encrypted database files, 16632 encrypted images and 144 encrypted archives.

After uploading the .KEY file to Spora's payment website, the ransom amount will be calculated depending on the number of encrypted files. The table below shows some examples, sorted by the amount of ransom asked (thanks to xXToffeeXx for providing these):

Office DocumentsPDFCorelDraw/AutoCAD/PhotoshopDatabasesImagesArchivesRansom in USD
22841550  12118979 up to 110
489471 4796679 up to 110
5223374206121269419890 up to 120
77917341 21948587782128 up to 170
11160935424699774242146 up to 190
1285151881851513310311281199 up to 250
21173708751497069730214 up to 270
25146258292959854631059435818280 up to 350
1389649508721824984627754122449280 up to 350
1181072721530610276511471280 up to 350
3050321354009837252711580280 up to 350
2637520505121783016315052487280 up to 350
823194070716931114385203607280 up to 360

Additional behavior

Spora does not bypass User Account Control (UAC). This means, the user will be asked whether the malware is allowed to make changes to the computer in use. Spora deletes shadow volume copies and disables Windows error recovery and startup repair.

List of files involved

FilenamesDescriptionSHA256Detected As
Скан-копия _ 10 января 2017г. Составлено и подписано главным бухгалтером. Экспорт из 1С.a01e743_рdf.htaHTA dropper3fb2e50764dea9266ca8c20681a0e0bf60feaa34a52699cf2cf0c07d96a22553Script.Trojan-Dropper.Spora.A
close.jsJScript droppere2fe74d890ddb516b4f21a6588c6e0bdbf3dd6f8c5116d707d08db7ebddf505aScript.Trojan-Dropper.Spora.G
81063163ded.exe, a277a133-ecde-c0f5-1591-ab36e22428bb.exeSpora PE file, UPX packeddbfd24cd70f02ddea6de0a851c1ef0f45f18b4f70e6f3d0f2e2aec0d1b4a2cbfWin32.Worm.Spora.B
doc_6d518e.docxCorrupt Word document0ba39054a70802d0b59a18b873aab519e418dc9b0c81400d27614c9c085409ad-
Windows.lnkMalicious shortcut Win32.Worm.SporaLnk.A
RU302-15XRK-GXTFO-GZTET-KTXFF-ORTXA-AYYYY.HTMLRansom note -
RU302-15XRK-GXTFO-GZTET-KTXFF-ORTXA-AYYYY.KEYContains statistics, campaignID, username, locale, timestamp and private RSA key C1; encrypted -
RU302-15XRK-GXTFO-GZTET-KTXFF-ORTXA-AYYYY.LSTList of encrypted files; encrypted -

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